Panarctic Flora


570114 Viola tricolor subsp. tricolor L.


Northern Iceland: Present only in the Borderline Arctic
Northern Fennoscandia: Persistent (Adventive)
Shrub Tundra: Present only in the Borderline Arctic
Bordering boreal or alpine areas: Frequent

2n= 24-34 26. - Europe. - Numerous reports.
In many accounts (e.g., Fedorov 1969), V. tricolor is reported with 2n = 26 and the related V. arvensis Murr. with 2n = 34. Hybridization is very common and may be behind some of the intermediate numbers.

Geography: European: (ICE) NOR*.

Notes: Viola tricolor is present in the Borderline Arctic as presumed native in Iceland (Kristinsson 2008) and probably as an established adventive in the Arctic in Norway.

Löve and Löve (1975a) treated all the 'arctic' North Atlantic plants as subsp. faeroeensis W. Becker, but this subspecies needs much additional justification before acceptance. The polymorphy in this species is impressive. The most distinctive additional race in northern Europe is the sand dune specialist subsp. curtisii (E. Forst.) Syme, reaching north to southern Norway.

Higher Taxa